Some Confusing Pronouns in the English Language
While learning English, many people are confused about the proper usage of who and whom. In fact, many people just take the easier way out and use who in place of whom. But, there is a difference, and once you understand it, hopefully, you will realize that it is not too difficult to use the correct pronoun!
The difference between who and whom depends on where they appear in the sentence. Who takes the position of the subject of the sentence. Whom, on the other hand, is the object of the verb and comes after a preposition. Let us take a look at some examples to understand this better.
When to Use Who and When to Use Whom
Wrong: To who are you writing the letter?
Correct: To whom are you writing the letter?
Wrong: Several people attended the ball, many of who didn’t even have a partner.
Correct: Several people attended the ball, many of whom didn’t even have a partner.
Wrong: The man whom appeared on the talk show is my professor.
Correct: The man who appeared on the talk show is my professor.
A popular trick to remember this distinction is by replacing who with the subject pronoun (I, he), and whom with the object pronoun (he, him). Now let’s try to rephrase the following sentences into a question using Who or Whom.
- She is ordering a pizza. (Who is ordering a pizza?)
- Sammy saw him near the parking lot. (Whom did Sammy see near the parking lot?)
- Mother baked this cake. (Who baked this cake?)
- Mother is baking a cake for me. (For whom is Mother baking this cake?)
Another trick is to ask the following questions when using who and whom:
Are we talking about someone doing an action?
[Or] Are we talking about someone who is having an action done to them?
Here’s an example: Lee baked cookies for the family.
Here, Lee is the one doing the action, and the family is at the receiving end of the action. If we were to ask, ‘Who baked cookies for the family?’ – The answer would be Lee, who did the action.
However, if we asked ‘Whom did Lee bake the cookies for?’ – the answer would be the family, who had the action done to them.
To sum it up, remember to use ‘who’ in the place of a subject, and ‘whom’ in the object’s position of the sentence.